(cMailman.Message Message qoq}q(U_headersq]q((U Return-PathU!tq(U X-Original-ToUkosar@list.dimnet.hutq(U Delivered-ToUkosar@list.dimnet.hutq(UReceivedUfrom dimnet (localhost []) by dimnet.hu (Postfix) with ESMTP id 613572BC7A68; Wed, 9 Apr 2014 19:46:15 +0200 (CEST)tq (UX-Quarantine-IDUtq (UX-Virus-ScannedUamavisd-new at dimnet.hutq (U X-Spam-FlagUYEStq (U X-Spam-ScoreU10.354tq (U X-Spam-LevelU **********tq(U X-Spam-StatusTSYes, score=10.354 tagged_above=2 required=4.31 tests=[BAYES_40=-0.001, HTML_MESSAGE=0.001, HTML_OBFUSCATE_05_10=0.26, MIME_HTML_ONLY=0.723, RAZOR2_CF_RANGE_51_100=0.5, RAZOR2_CF_RANGE_E8_51_100=1.886, RAZOR2_CHECK=0.922, RCVD_IN_PSBL=2.7, RCVD_IN_RP_RNBL=1.31, RDNS_NONE=0.793, T_REMOTE_IMAGE=0.01, URIBL_JP_SURBL=1.25] autolearn=spamtq(UReceivedUťfrom dimnet.hu ([]) by dimnet (dimnet.hu []) (amavisd-new, port 10024) with ESMTP id BNyQarjnq_1L; Wed, 9 Apr 2014 19:46:12 +0200 (CEST)tq(UReceivedUÂfrom x3a84iji.ooted.ooted.ooted.ooted.ooted.me.uk (unknown []) by dimnet.hu (Postfix) with ESMTP id 5293C2BC7A47 for ; Wed, 9 Apr 2014 19:45:58 +0200 (CEST)tq(UReceivedU˛by 03da3e41.x3a84iji.ooted.ooted.ooted.ooted.ooted.me.uk (amavisd-new, port 9686) with ESMTP id 03DVVSGHDA3ETARYUI41; for ; Wed, 9 Apr 2014 10:47:01 -0700tq(U Message-IDUL<36868864630747368671672355751@x3a84iji.ooted.ooted.ooted.ooted.ooted.me.uk>qtq(UContent-Transfer-EncodingU8bittq(UToUkosar@list.dimnet.hutq(UFromU9"Home Security Cameras" tq(USubjectU:***SPAM*** Save big!...on wireless security cameras, todaytq(UContent-LanguageUen-ustq(U MIME-VersionU1.0tq(UDateUWed, 9 Apr 2014 10:47:01 -0700tq(U Content-TypeUtext/html; charset=us-asciitqeU_payloadqT7

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this is possible only in very simple cases. For complicated and long processes of production it would be quite out of the question.

In an exchange economy, the objective exchange value of commodities becomes the unit of calculation. This involves a threefold advantage. In the first place we are ableto take as the basis of calculation the valuation of all individuals participating in trade. The subjective valuationof one individual is not directly comparable with the subjective valuation of others. It only becomes so as an exchange value arising from the interplay of the subjective valuations of all who take part in buying and selling. Secondly, calculations of this sort provide a control upon the appropriate use of the means of production. They enable those who desire to calculate the hi of complicated processes of production to see at once whether they are working as economically as others. If, under prevailing market prices, they cannot carry through the process at a profit, it is a clear proof that others are better able to turn to good account the instrumental goods in question. Finally, calculations based upon exchange values enable us to reduce values to a common unit. And since the higglingof the market establishes substitution relations betweencommodities, any commodity

desired can be chosen for this purpose. in a hi economy, hi is the commodity chosen. [75] hi calculations have their limits. hi is neither a yardstick of value nor of prices. hi does not measure value. nor are prices measured in hi: they are amounts of hi. and, although those who describe hi as a “standard of deferred his” naively hiume it to be so, as a commodity it is not stable in value. the relation between hi and goods perpetually fluctuates not only on the “goods side,” but on the “hi side” also. As a rule, indeed, these fluctuations are not too violent. They do not too much impair the economic calculus, because under a state of continuous change of all economic conditions, this calculus takes in view only comparatively short periods, in which “sound hi” at least does not change its purchasing power to any very great extent.

the deficiencies of hi calculations arise for the most part, not because they are made in terms of a general medium of exchange, hi, but because theyare based on exchange values rather than on subjective use-values. For this reason all elements of value which are not the subject ofexchange elude such computations. If, for example, we are considering whether a hydraulic power-works would be profitable we cannot include in the computation the damage which will be done to the beauty of the waterfalls unless the fall in values due to a fall in tourist traffic is taken into account. Yet we must certainly take such considerations into account when deciding whether the undertaking shall be carried out.

Considerations such as these are often termed “non-economic.” And we may permit the expression for disputes about terminology gain nothing. But not all such considerationsshould be called irrational. The beauty of a place or of a building, thehealth of the race, the honour of individuals or nations, even if (because they are not dealt with on the market) they do not enter into exchange relations, are just as much motives of rational action, provided people think them significant, as those normally called economic. that they cannot enter into hi calculations arises from the very nature of these calculations. But this does not in the least lessen the value of hi calculations in ordinary economic matters. for all such .

U_charsetqNUepilogueqNU _default_typeq U text/plainq!U _unixfromq"U>From HomeSecurityCameras@ooted.me.uk Wed Apr 9 19:46:15 2014Udefectsq#]U __version__q$(KKKtq%Upreambleq&Nub.