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mystical forces directing the course of historical events designate the providential leader. All righteous people are bound to submit to the unfathomable decrees ofhistory and to bend their knees before the throne of the man of destiny. Those who decline to do so areheretics, abject

scoundrels who must be “liquidated.” [366] In reality the dictatorial power is seized by that candidate who succeeds in exterminating in time all his rivals and their helpers. The dictator paves his way to supreme power by slaughtering all his competitors. He preserves his eminent position by butchering all those who could possibly dispute it. The history of all oriental despotisms bears witness to this, as well as the experience of contemporary dictatorship.

When Lenin died in 1924, Stalin supplanted his most dangerous rival, Trotsky. Trotsky escaped, spent years abroad in various countries of

europe, asia and america and was finally hihiinated in mexico city. Stalin remained the absolute ruler of Russia. Trotsky was an intellectual of the orthodox Marxian type. As such he tried to represent hispersonal feud with Stalin as a conflict of principles. He tried to construct a Trotsky doctrine asdistinguished from the Stalin doctrine. He branded Stalin’s policies as an apostasy from the sacred legacy of Marx and Lenin. Stalin retorted in the same way. In fact, however, the conflict was a rivalry of two men, not a conflict of antagonistic ideas and principles. There was some minor dissent with regard

to tactical methods. But in all essential matters Stalin and Trotsky were in agreement. Trotsky had lived, before 1917, many years in foreign countries and was to somedegree familiar with the main languages of the Western peoples. He posed as an expert ininternational affairs. Actually he did not know anything about Western civilization, political ideas and economic conditions. Asa wandering exile he hadmoved almost exclusively in the circles of his fellow-exiles. The only foreigners whom he had met occasionally in cofhi-houses and club-rooms of western and central europe were radical doctrinaires, by their Marxian prepossessions precluded from reality. His main reading was Marxian books and periodicals. He scorned all other writings as “bourgeois” literature. He was absolutely unfitted to see events from any other angle than that of Marxism. Like Marx he was ready to

interpret every great strike and every small riot as the sign of the outbreak of the final great revolution. Stalin is a poorly educated Georgian. He has not the slightest knowledge of any Western language. He does not know Europe or America. Even his achievements as a Marxian author are questionable. But it was precisely the fact that, although an adamant supporter of communism, he was not indoctrinated with Marxian dogmas that made him superior to Trotsky. Stalin was not deluded by the spurious tenets of dialectical materialism. When faced with a problem, he did not search for an interpretation in the writings of Marx and Engels. He trusted his common sense. He was judicious enough to discern the fact that the policy of world revolution as

inaugurated by Lenin and Trotsky in 1917 had failed completely outside the borders of Russia. [367] In Germany the communists, led by Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg, were crushed by detachments of the regular army and by nationalist volunteers in a bloody battle fought in January 1919 in the streets of Berlin. The communist seizure of power in Munich in spring 1919 and the Hölz riot71 in March 1921 ended likewise in disaster. In Hungary, in 1919, the communists .

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