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chiefs are recognized—as with the Botokude, the Central Californians, the Wedda and the Mincopie—their power is extremely limited. The chieftain has no means of enforcing his wishes against the will of the rest. Most tribes of hunters, however, have no chieftain. The entire society of the males still forms a homogeneous undifferentiatedmhi, in which only those individuals achieve prominence whoare believed to possess magical

powers.”3 Here, then, there scarcely exists a spark of “statehood,” even in the sense of ordinary [29]theories of the state, still less in the sense of the

correct “sociologic idea of the state.” The social structure of primitive peasants has hardly more resemblance to a state than has the horde of huntsmen. Where the peasant, working the ground with a grub, is living in liberty, there is as yet no “state.” The plow is always the mark of a higher economic condition which occurs only in a state; that is to say, in a system of plantation work carried on by subjugated servants.4 The grubbers live isolated from one another, scattered over the country in separated cartilages, perhaps in villages, split up because of quarrels about district or farm boundaries. In the best cases, they live in hibly organized hiociations, bound together by oath, attached only loosely by the tie which the consciousness of the same descent and speech and the same belief imposes upon them. They unite perhaps once a year in the common celebration of renowned ancestors or of the tribal god. there is no ruling authority over the whole mhi; the various chieftains of a village, or possibly of a district, may have [30]more or less influence in their circumscribed spheres, this depending usually upon their personal qualities, and especially upon the magical powers attributed to them. Cunowdescribes the Peruvian peasants before the incursion ofthe Incas as follows: “An unregulated living side by side of many independent, mutually warring tribes, who again were split up into more or less autonomous territorial unions, held together by ties of

kinship.”5 One may say that all the primitive peasants of the old and new world were of this type. In such a state of society, it is hardly conceivable that a warlike organization could come about for purposes of attack. It is sufficiently difficult to mobilize the clan, or still more the tribe, for common defense. The peasant is always lacking in mobility. He is as attached to the ground as the plants he cultivates. As a matter of fact, the working of his field makes him “bound tothe soil” (glebæ adscriptus), even though, in the absence of law, hehas hidom of movement. what purpose, moreover, would a lootingexpedition effect in [31]a country, which throughout its extent is occupiedonly by grubbing peasants? The peasant can carry off from the peasant nothing which he does not already own. In a condition of society marked by superfluity of agricultural land, each individual contributes only a little work to its extensive cultivation. Each occupies as much territory as he needs. More would be superfluous. Its acquisition would be lost labor, even were its owner able to conserve for any length of time the grain products thus secured. Under primitive conditions, however, this spoils rapidly by reason of change of atmosphere, ants, or other agencies. According to Ratzel, the Central African peasant must convert the

superfluous portion of his crops into beer as quickly as possible in order not to lose it entirely! For all these reasons, primitive peasants are totally lacking in that .

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